Here’s some miscellaneous documentation about using Calcite and its various adapters.

Building from a source distribution

Prerequisites are maven (3.5.2 or later) and Java (JDK 7, 8, 9 or 10) on your path.

Unpack the source distribution .tar.gz or .zip file, cd to the root directory of the unpacked source, then build using maven:

$ tar xvfz calcite-1.15.0-source.tar.gz
$ cd calcite-1.15.0
$ mvn install

Running tests describes how to run more or fewer tests.

Building from git

Prerequisites are git, maven (3.5.2 or later) and Java (JDK 7 or later, 9 preferred) on your path.

Create a local copy of the github repository, cd to its root directory, then build using maven:

$ git clone git://
$ cd calcite
$ mvn install

Calcite includes a number of machine-generated codes. By default, these are regenerated on every build, but this has the negative side-effect of causing a re-compilation of the entire project when the non-machine-generated code has not changed. To make sure incremental compilation still works as intended, provide the skipGenerate command line option with your maven command. If you invoke the clean lifecycle phase, you must not specify the skipGenerate option as it will not recompile the necessary code for the build to succeed.

$ mvn clean
$ mvn package
... hacks ...
$ mvn package -DskipGenerate

Running tests describes how to run more or fewer tests.

Running tests

The test suite will run by default when you build, unless you specify -DskipTests:

$ mvn -DskipTests clean install
$ mvn test

There are other options that control which tests are run, and in what environment, as follows.

  • -Dcalcite.test.db=DB (where db is h2, hsqldb, mysql, or postgresql) allows you to change the JDBC data source for the test suite. Calcite’s test suite requires a JDBC data source populated with the foodmart data set.
    • hsqldb, the default, uses an in-memory hsqldb database.
    • All others access a test virtual machine (see integration tests below). mysql and postgresql might be somewhat faster than hsqldb, but you need to populate it (i.e. provision a VM).
  • -Dcalcite.debug prints extra debugging information to stdout.
  • -Dcalcite.test.slow enables tests that take longer to execute. For example, there are tests that create virtual TPC-H and TPC-DS schemas in-memory and run tests from those benchmarks.
  • -Dcalcite.test.splunk enables tests that run against Splunk. Splunk must be installed and running.

Running integration tests

For testing Calcite’s external adapters, a test virtual machine should be used. The VM includes Cassandra, Druid, H2, HSQLDB, MySQL, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL.

Test VM requires 5GiB of disk space and it takes 30 minutes to build.

Note: you can use calcite-test-dataset to populate your own database, however it is recommended to use test VM so the test environment can be reproduced.

VM preparation

0) Install dependencies: Vagrant and VirtualBox

1) Clone at the same level as calcite repository. For instance:

  +-- calcite
  +-- calcite-test-dataset

Note: integration tests search for ../calcite-test-dataset or ../../calcite-test-dataset. You can specify full path via calcite.test.dataset system property.

2) Build and start the VM:

cd calcite-test-dataset && mvn install

VM management

Test VM is provisioned by Vagrant, so regular Vagrant vagrant up and vagrant halt should be used to start and stop the VM. The connection strings for different databases are listed in calcite-test-dataset readme.

Suggested test flow

Note: test VM should be started before you launch integration tests. Calcite itself does not start/stop the VM.

Command line:

  • Executing regular unit tests (does not require external data): no change. mvn test or mvn install.
  • Executing all tests, for all the DBs: mvn verify -Pit. it stands for “integration-test”. mvn install -Pit works as well.
  • Executing just tests for external DBs, excluding unit tests: mvn -Dtest=foo -DfailIfNoTests=false -Pit verify
  • Executing just MongoDB tests: cd mongo; mvn verify -Pit

From within IDE:

  • Executing regular unit tests: no change.
  • Executing MongoDB tests: run as usual (no additional properties are required)
  • Executing MySQL tests: run JdbcTest and JdbcAdapterTest with setting -Dcalcite.test.db=mysql
  • Executing PostgreSQL tests: run JdbcTest and JdbcAdapterTest with setting -Dcalcite.test.db=postgresql

Integration tests technical details

Tests with external data are executed at maven’s integration-test phase. We do not currently use pre-integration-test/post-integration-test, however we could use that in future. The verification of build pass/failure is performed at verify phase. Integration tests should be named, so they are not picked up on unit test execution.


See the developers guide.

Getting started

See the developers guide.


To enable tracing, add the following flags to the java command line:


The first flag causes Calcite to print the Java code it generates (to execute queries) to stdout. It is especially useful if you are debugging mysterious problems like this:

Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException: Integer cannot be cast to Long at Baz$1$1.current(Unknown Source)

By default, Calcite uses the Log4j bindings for SLF4J. There is a provided configuration file which outputs logging at the INFO level to the console in core/src/test/resources/ You can modify the level for the rootLogger to increase verbosity or change the level for a specific class if you so choose.

# Change rootLogger level to WARN
log4j.rootLogger=WARN, A1
# Increase level to DEBUG for RelOptPlanner
# Increase level to TRACE for HepPlanner

CSV adapter

See the tutorial.

MongoDB adapter

First, download and install Calcite, and install MongoDB.

Note: you can use MongoDB from integration test virtual machine above.

Import MongoDB’s zipcode data set into MongoDB:

$ curl -o /tmp/zips.json
$ mongoimport --db test --collection zips --file /tmp/zips.json
Tue Jun  4 16:24:14.190 check 9 29470
Tue Jun  4 16:24:14.469 imported 29470 objects

Log into MongoDB to check it’s there:

$ mongo
MongoDB shell version: 2.4.3
connecting to: test
> db.zips.find().limit(3)
{ "city" : "ACMAR", "loc" : [ -86.51557, 33.584132 ], "pop" : 6055, "state" : "AL", "_id" : "35004" }
{ "city" : "ADAMSVILLE", "loc" : [ -86.959727, 33.588437 ], "pop" : 10616, "state" : "AL", "_id" : "35005" }
{ "city" : "ADGER", "loc" : [ -87.167455, 33.434277 ], "pop" : 3205, "state" : "AL", "_id" : "35006" }
> exit

Connect using the mongo-zips-model.json Calcite model:

$ ./sqlline
sqlline> !connect jdbc:calcite:model=mongodb/target/test-classes/mongo-zips-model.json admin admin
Connecting to jdbc:calcite:model=mongodb/target/test-classes/mongo-zips-model.json
Connected to: Calcite (version 1.x.x)
Driver: Calcite JDBC Driver (version 1.x.x)
Autocommit status: true
sqlline> !tables
| null       | mongo_raw    | zips            | TABLE         |
| null       | mongo_raw    | system.indexes  | TABLE         |
| null       | mongo        | ZIPS            | VIEW          |
| null       | metadata     | COLUMNS         | SYSTEM_TABLE  |
| null       | metadata     | TABLES          | SYSTEM_TABLE  |
sqlline> select count(*) from zips;
| EXPR$0  |
| 29467   |
1 row selected (0.746 seconds)
sqlline> !quit
Closing: org.apache.calcite.jdbc.FactoryJdbc41$CalciteConnectionJdbc41

Splunk adapter

To run the test suite and sample queries against Splunk, load Splunk’s data set as described in the Splunk tutorial.

(This step is optional, but it provides some interesting data for the sample queries. It is also necessary if you intend to run the test suite, using -Dcalcite.test.splunk=true.)

Implementing an adapter

New adapters can be created by implementing CalcitePrepare.Context:

import org.apache.calcite.jdbc.CalcitePrepare;
import org.apache.calcite.jdbc.CalciteSchema;

public class AdapterContext implements CalcitePrepare.Context {
  public JavaTypeFactory getTypeFactory() {
    // adapter implementation
    return typeFactory;

  public CalciteSchema getRootSchema() {
    // adapter implementation
    return rootSchema;

Testing adapter in Java

The example below shows how SQL query can be submitted to CalcitePrepare with a custom context (AdapterContext in this case). Calcite prepares and implements the query execution, using the resources provided by the Context. CalcitePrepare.PrepareResult provides access to the underlying enumerable and methods for enumeration. The enumerable itself can naturally be some adapter specific implementation.

import org.apache.calcite.jdbc.CalcitePrepare;
import org.apache.calcite.prepare.CalcitePrepareImpl;
import org.junit.Test;

public class AdapterContextTest {
  public void testSelectAllFromTable() {
    AdapterContext ctx = new AdapterContext();
    String sql = "SELECT * FROM TABLENAME";
    Class elementType = Object[].class;
    CalcitePrepare.PrepareResult<Object> prepared =
        new CalcitePrepareImpl().prepareSql(ctx, sql, null, elementType, -1);
    Object enumerable = prepared.getExecutable();
    // etc.

Advanced topics for developers

The following sections might be of interest if you are adding features to particular parts of the code base. You don’t need to understand these topics if you are just building from source and running tests.


When Calcite compares types (instances of RelDataType), it requires them to be the same object. If there are two distinct type instances that refer to the same Java type, Calcite may fail to recognize that they match. It is recommended to:

  • Use a single instance of JavaTypeFactory within the calcite context;
  • Store the types so that the same object is always returned for the same type.

Rebuilding generated Protocol Buffer code

Calcite’s Avatica Server component supports RPC serialization using Protocol Buffers. In the context of Avatica, Protocol Buffers can generate a collection of messages defined by a schema. The library itself can parse old serialized messages using a new schema. This is highly desirable in an environment where the client and server are not guaranteed to have the same version of objects.

Typically, the code generated by the Protocol Buffers library doesn’t need to be re-generated only every build, only when the schema changes.

First, install Protobuf 3.0:

$ wget
$ tar xf protobuf-java-3.0.0-beta-1.tar.gz && cd protobuf-3.0.0-beta-1
$ ./configure
$ make
$ sudo make install

Then, re-generate the compiled code:

$ cd avatica/core
$ ./src/main/scripts/

Advanced topics for committers

The following sections are of interest to Calcite committers and in particular release managers.

Set up PGP signing keys (for Calcite committers)

Follow instructions here to create a key pair. (On Mac OS X, I did brew install gpg and gpg --gen-key.)

Add your public key to the KEYS file by following instructions in the KEYS file. (The KEYS file is not present in the git repo or in a release tar ball because that would be redundant.)

Making a snapshot (for Calcite committers)

Before you start:

  • Set up signing keys as described above.
  • Make sure you are using JDK 8 (not 7, 9 or 10).
  • Make sure build and tests succeed with -Dcalcite.test.db=hsqldb (the default)
# Set passphrase variable without putting it into shell history

# Make sure that there are no junk files in the sandbox
git clean -xn
mvn clean

mvn -Papache-release -Dgpg.passphrase=${GPG_PASSPHRASE} install

When the dry-run has succeeded, change install to deploy.

Making a release (for Calcite committers)

Before you start:

  • Set up signing keys as described above.
  • Make sure you are using JDK 8 (not 7 or 9).
  • Check that README and site/_docs/ have the correct version number.
  • Check that NOTICE has the current copyright year.
  • Set version.major and version.minor in pom.xml.
  • Make sure build and tests succeed, including with -P it,it-oracle.
  • Make sure that mvn javadoc:javadoc javadoc:test-javadoc succeeds (i.e. gives no errors; warnings are OK)
  • Generate a report of vulnerabilities that occur among dependencies, using -Ppedantic; if you like, run again with -DfailBuildOnCVSS=8 to see whether serious vulnerabilities exist.
  • Make sure that mvn apache-rat:check succeeds. (It will be run as part of the release, but it’s better to trouble-shoot early.)
  • Decide the supported configurations of JDK, operating system and Guava. These will probably be the same as those described in the release notes of the previous release. Document them in the release notes. To test Guava version x.y, specify -Dguava.version=x.y
  • Optional extra tests:
    • -Dcalcite.test.db=mysql
    • -Dcalcite.test.db=hsqldb
    • -Dcalcite.test.slow
    • -Dcalcite.test.mongodb
    • -Dcalcite.test.splunk
  • Trigger a Coverity scan by merging the latest code into the julianhyde/coverity_scan branch, and when it completes, make sure that there are no important issues.
  • Add release notes to site/_docs/ Include the commit history, and say which versions of Java, Guava and operating systems the release is tested against.
  • Make sure that every “resolved” JIRA case (including duplicates) has a fix version assigned (most likely the version we are just about to release)

Smoke-test sqlline with Spatial and Oracle function tables:

$ ./sqlline
> !connect jdbc:calcite:fun=spatial,oracle "sa" ""
SELECT NVL(ST_Is3D(ST_PointFromText('POINT(-71.064544 42.28787)')), TRUE);
| EXPR$0 |
| false  |
1 row selected (0.039 seconds)
> !quit

Create a release branch named after the release, e.g. branch-1.1, and push it to Apache.

$ git checkout -b branch-X.Y
$ git push -u origin branch-X.Y

We will use the branch for the entire the release process. Meanwhile, we do not allow commits to the master branch. After the release is final, we can use git merge --ff-only to append the changes on the release branch onto the master branch. (Apache does not allow reverts to the master branch, which makes it difficult to clean up the kind of messy commits that inevitably happen while you are trying to finalize a release.)

Now, set up your environment and do a dry run. The dry run will not commit any changes back to git and gives you the opportunity to verify that the release process will complete as expected.

If any of the steps fail, clean up (see below), fix the problem, and start again from the top.

# Set passphrase variable without putting it into shell history

# Make sure that there are no junk files in the sandbox
git clean -xn
mvn clean

# Do a dry run of the release:prepare step, which sets version numbers
# (accept the default tag name of calcite-X.Y.Z)
mvn -DdryRun=true -DskipTests -DreleaseVersion=X.Y.Z -DdevelopmentVersion=X.Y+1.Z-SNAPSHOT -Papache-release -Darguments="-Dgpg.passphrase=${GPG_PASSPHRASE}" release:prepare 2>&1 | tee /tmp/prepare-dry.log

Check the artifacts. Note that when performing the dry run SNAPSHOT will appear in any file or directory names given below. The version will be automatically changed when performing the release for real.

  • In the target directory should be these 8 files, among others:
    • apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz
    • apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz.asc
    • apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz.md5
    • apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-src.tar.gz.sha256
  • Note that the file names start apache-calcite-.
  • In the two source distros .tar.gz and .zip (currently there is no binary distro), check that all files belong to a directory called apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-src.
  • That directory must contain files NOTICE, LICENSE, README,
    • Check that the version in README is correct
    • Check that the copyright year in NOTICE is correct
  • Make sure that there is no KEYS file in the source distros
  • In each .jar (for example core/target/calcite-core-X.Y.Z.jar and mongodb/target/calcite-mongodb-X.Y.Z-sources.jar), check that the META-INF directory contains DEPENDENCIES, LICENSE, NOTICE and
  • In core/target/calcite-core-X.Y.Z.jar, check that is present and does not contain un-substituted ${...} variables
  • Check PGP, per this

Now, remove the -DdryRun flag and run the release for real. For this step you’ll have to add the Apache servers to ~/.m2/settings.xml.

# Prepare sets the version numbers, creates a tag, and pushes it to git
mvn -DdryRun=false -DskipTests -DreleaseVersion=X.Y.Z -DdevelopmentVersion=X.Y+1.Z-SNAPSHOT -Papache-release -Darguments="-Dgpg.passphrase=${GPG_PASSPHRASE}" release:prepare 2>&1 | tee /tmp/prepare.log

# Perform checks out the tagged version, builds, and deploys to the staging repository
mvn -DskipTests -Papache-release -Darguments="-Dgpg.passphrase=${GPG_PASSPHRASE}" release:perform 2>&1 | tee /tmp/perform.log

Verify the staged artifacts in the Nexus repository:

  • Go to and login
  • Under Build Promotion, click Staging Repositories
  • In the Staging Repositories tab there should be a line with profile org.apache.calcite
  • Navigate through the artifact tree and make sure the .jar, .pom, .asc files are present
  • Check the box on in the first column of the row, and press the ‘Close’ button to publish the repository at (or a similar URL)

Upload the artifacts via subversion to a staging area,

# Create a subversion workspace, if you haven't already
mkdir -p ~/dist/dev
pushd ~/dist/dev
svn co

# Move the files into a directory
mkdir ~/dist/dev/calcite/apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-rcN
mv apache-calcite-* ~/dist/dev/calcite/apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-rcN

# Check in
cd ~/dist/dev/calcite
svn add apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-rcN
svn ci

Cleaning up after a failed release attempt (for Calcite committers)

# Make sure that the tag you are about to generate does not already
# exist (due to a failed release attempt)
git tag

# If the tag exists, delete it locally and remotely
git tag -d calcite-X.Y.Z
git push origin :refs/tags/calcite-X.Y.Z

# Remove modified files
mvn release:clean

# Check whether there are modified files and if so, go back to the
# original git commit
git status
git reset --hard HEAD

Validate a release

# Check that the signing key (e.g. DDB6E9812AD3FAE3) is pushed
gpg --recv-keys key

# Check keys
curl -O

# Sign/check md5 and sha1 hashes
# (Assumes your O/S has 'md5' and 'sha1' commands.)
function checkHash() {
  cd "$1"
  for i in *.{zip,pom,gz}; do
    if [ ! -f $i ]; then
    if [ -f $i.md5 ]; then
      if [ "$(cat $i.md5)" = "$(md5 -q $i)" ]; then
        echo $i.md5 present and correct
        echo $i.md5 does not match
      md5 -q $i > $i.md5
      echo $i.md5 created
    if [ -f $i.sha1 ]; then
      if [ "$(cat $i.sha1)" = "$(sha1 -q $i)" ]; then
        echo $i.sha1 present and correct
        echo $i.sha1 does not match
      sha1 -q $i > $i.sha1
      echo $i.sha1 created
checkHash apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-rcN

Get approval for a release via Apache voting process (for Calcite committers)

Release vote on dev list

Subject: [VOTE] Release apache-calcite-X.Y.Z (release candidate N)

Hi all,

I have created a build for Apache Calcite X.Y.Z, release candidate N.

Thanks to everyone who has contributed to this release.
<Further details about release.> You can read the release notes here:

The commit to be voted upon:

Its hash is XXXX.

The artifacts to be voted on are located here:

The hashes of the artifacts are as follows:
src.tar.gz.md5 XXXX
src.tar.gz.sha1 XXXX XXXX XXXX

A staged Maven repository is available for review at:

Release artifacts are signed with the following key:

Please vote on releasing this package as Apache Calcite X.Y.Z.

The vote is open for the next 72 hours and passes if a majority of
at least three +1 PMC votes are cast.

[ ] +1 Release this package as Apache Calcite X.Y.Z
[ ]  0 I don't feel strongly about it, but I'm okay with the release
[ ] -1 Do not release this package because...

Here is my vote:

+1 (binding)


After vote finishes, send out the result:

Subject: [RESULT] [VOTE] Release apache-calcite-X.Y.Z (release candidate N)

Thanks to everyone who has tested the release candidate and given
their comments and votes.

The tally is as follows.

N binding +1s:

N non-binding +1s:

No 0s or -1s.

Therefore I am delighted to announce that the proposal to release
Apache Calcite X.Y.Z has passed.

Thanks everyone. We’ll now roll the release out to the mirrors.

There was some feedback during voting. I shall open a separate
thread to discuss.


Use the Apache URL shortener to generate shortened URLs for the vote proposal and result emails. Examples: and

Publishing a release (for Calcite committers)

After a successful release vote, we need to push the release out to mirrors, and other tasks.

Choose a release date. This is based on the time when you expect to announce the release. This is usually a day after the vote closes. Remember that UTC date changes at 4pm Pacific time.

In JIRA, search for all issues resolved in this release, and do a bulk update changing their status to “Closed”, with a change comment “Resolved in release X.Y.Z (YYYY-MM-DD)” (fill in release number and date appropriately). Uncheck “Send mail for this update”.

Promote the staged nexus artifacts.

  • Go to and login
  • Under “Build Promotion” click “Staging Repositories”
  • In the line with “orgapachecalcite-xxxx”, check the box
  • Press “Release” button

Check the artifacts into svn.

# Get the release candidate.
mkdir -p ~/dist/dev
cd ~/dist/dev
svn co

# Copy the artifacts. Note that the copy does not have '-rcN' suffix.
mkdir -p ~/dist/release
cd ~/dist/release
svn co
cd calcite
cp -rp ../../dev/calcite/apache-calcite-X.Y.Z-rcN apache-calcite-X.Y.Z
svn add apache-calcite-X.Y.Z

# Check in.
svn ci

Svnpubsub will publish to the release repo and propagate to the mirrors within 24 hours.

If there are now more than 2 releases, clear out the oldest ones:

cd ~/dist/release/calcite
svn rm apache-calcite-X.Y.Z
svn ci

The old releases will remain available in the release archive.

You should receive an email from the Apache Reporter Service. Make sure to add the version number and date of the latest release at the site linked to in the email.

Add a release note by copying site/_posts/, generate the javadoc using mvn site, publish the site, and check that it appears in the contents in news.

Merge the release branch back into master (e.g. git merge --ff-only branch-X.Y).

After 24 hours, announce the release by sending an email to You can use the 1.10.0 announcement as a template. Be sure to include a brief description of the project.

Publishing the web site (for Calcite committers)

See instructions in site/